The invention and development of printing presses play an important role in the spread of human civilization and culture.
In 1439, Germany's Gutenberg produced a wooden letterpress printing machine. Although the vertical spiral type hand printing machine was simple in structure, it was used for 300 years. In 1812, Germany's König made the first. Taiwan round-pressed letterpress printing machine; in 1847, Hoy in the United States invented the rotary printing press; in 1900, made a six-color rotary printing press; in 1904, the American Rubel invented the offset printing press.
Before the 1950s, the traditional letterpress printing process dominated the printing industry, and the development of printing presses was dominated by letterpress printing machines. However, the lead alloy relief printing process has the disadvantages of high labor intensity, long production cycle and environmental pollution. Since the 1960s, lithographic offset printing processes with short cycle times and high productivity have begun to develop and develop. Lead alloy letterpress printing has gradually been replaced by lithographic offset printing. Soft letterpress printing, stencil printing, electrostatic printing, inkjet printing, etc. have also been developed in packaging printing and advertising printing.
The world's printing machinery has made great progress since the 1980s. For more than 20 years, the development of printing machinery has gone through three stages:
The first stage was from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. This stage was the heyday of the development of the offset printing process. The maximum printing speed of the sheetfed offset press during this period was 10,000 impressions/hour. The pre-adjustment preparation time of a four-color printing press before printing is generally about 2 hours. The automatic control of the printing machine mainly focuses on automatic paper-cutting, automatic paper-receiving, automatic cleaning, automatic detection of ink color, automatic adjustment of ink volume and registration remote control. In addition to monochrome and two-color machines, each sheetfed offset press manufacturer has almost the ability to manufacture four-color machines. Most manufacturers are able to manufacture paper turning mechanisms for double-sided printing.
The second stage was from the early 1990s to the end of the 20th century. In the 1990s, with the sheetfed offset press as a symbol, the international level of printing machinery design and manufacturing has taken a big step forward. Compared with the first-stage model, the speed of the new-generation model is further improved from 10,000 prints/hour to 15,000 prints/hour, and the pre-press adjustment time is greatly shortened from about 2 hours in the first stage to 15 minutes. about. The automation level and productivity of the machine are also greatly improved.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, printing machinery has ushered in the third stage of development. Some models of sheetfed offset presses can reach 17,000-18,000 prints per hour, but manufacturers do not strive to maximize the printing speed of the press, but use information technology to further reduce pre-press preparation time and replacement. The time of the job pursues higher productivity.
In the field of printing machinery automation, technologies such as networking, production integration, digital workflow, and links to management information systems (MIS) have become the focus of development. Heidelberg's CP2000 automatic control system, in addition to the whole machine from paper feeding, paper feeding and paper guiding, inking, water, plate changing, registration, cleaning, drying, glazing coating, dusting and delivery, etc. In addition to preset, control and fault diagnosis in the work link, it also has the functions of networking all production processes of the printing enterprise and online transmission of prepress image processing data (CIP3/PPF or CIP4/JDF data). In the new century, most offset printer manufacturers have developed corresponding DI digital presses.
In addition, in order to meet people's demand for high-end color prints, 8-color group and even 10-color group multi-color group double-sided printing, additional in-line post-press processing functions become various sheetfed offset presses (including small offset presses, DI direct The development trend of plate-making machines and large-format offset presses, and the maturity of technology, this type of printing press has begun to squeeze into a part of the market that is originally a web press.
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